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This article is perhaps best described as Non-Fiction from the Desk's Mystery Series.

"Within lies fact and fancy, truth and metaphor. Discriminate with care." (old site) see links below

WARNING: This article may upset more sensitive readers.
You Have Been Warned.


The Desk has touched on this topic several times before, and there are links to those articles below. However, it has never simply stood in one place and looked at it, in all its various incarnations, until now.

      So, without further ado, we bring you.....


      First, we'll deal with critters that exist by ingesting the blood of others, or hematophagy. Such as the infamous mosquito who uses it as part of their procreation process, as well as bedbugs and other creepy crawlies, and internal parasites such as various worms, the Lampreys (which are not eels but fish) who all live by consuming the blood of others. And, yes, of course, Desmodus rotundus with their two distant cousins, the vampire bats. Eventually we will come to those with Renfield Syndrome, but try not to get too close, after we leave a darkened neighborhood theater. Finally, and much later in the day, we'll look at where they began. Or, we'll try.
      Oh, by the way, in some quarters spelling the word with a 'y', or other variation is all the rage. Vampyre. There we've done it. We shan't do it again for this article.
      Animals that take in the blood or other vital fluid of others, plants and animals, to survive have apparently been around for almost as long as life on Earth. True Bugs, such as stinkbugs, do to your tomato plant what the bedbug does to you at night. Other plant parasites, including other plants, make their host do all the work, while they reap the benefits. And, usually, it is at some cost to the host, too many of those bugs in the garden and the gardener won't be canning any tomatoes this year. Plant sap, as with blood, is life itself. Which is why some humans have developed a taste for it, but we're getting way ahead of ourselves here.
      As was discussed at length in the Desk's look at Blood (link below), humans have known for a very long time that the red stuff inside you is fairly important to your remaining with us. If too much of it gets out, you're not much good any longer. Animals seem to know that as well, it has been well documented that some animals practice first aid on themselves with mud or leaves to stop bleeding when injured, and, they use similar means to remove external parasites that are, well, 'drinking their blood' because they are not willful partners in that arrangement. It has also been observed that if internal parasites, such as those worms we mentioned, becoming annoying, many species of animals will go some distance to seek out medicinal plants that correct things. Many native human tribes, some one step this side of Stone Age, maintain such knowledge as well. There is a link below to a Desk article that discusses that topic in more detail.
      That being said, it is the smart and successful parasite that does not either weaken its host to where the host can no longer sustain the freeloader, or, even worse, kill it, thereby killing itself.
      Those last points is where the reality of the animals mentioned and the horror fiction of the last couple of centuries diverge.

We begin with that fiction we mentioned:

      In many of the stories the Vampire does not directly kill his victim the first time they have dinner together. Oh, he can, and in the vast majority of the tales, the blood drinker is a 'he'. But we'll come back to that. Yes, the vampire can remove so much of that red liquid that the donor dies. But it is in the act of seduction, and if you watch the classic movies, it is clearly a seduction, the victim, usually a very attractive young woman, willingly offers her throat to the Count, just as she would willingly offer the rest of herself to a lover.
      Count Dracula, and the majority of his union brothers, were depicted as suave, debonair, and sometimes even aristocratic men of means and substance, perhaps with just a touch of gray around the temples.
      When the undead was a female, she was usually depicted as the ultimate Femme Fatal, a supremely sexy woman with whom any liaison will be deadly.
      Of course there were exceptions to those broad statements. Such as the original German film vampire, Nosferatu, from 1922 starring Max Schreck as Count Orlok, the vampire who was anything but suave and debonair. The movie, as well as the book it is based on, in their entirety, are available online from several different outlets for free, and it is worth watching (see links below). Not to mention how the 'weird sisters' (the Count's brides in the 1897 novel), changed from the original Dracula movie to more modern outings. While the three women were attractive in the 1931 edition, and are mentioned as such in the book, it would be a stretch to call them sexy. But, true to type, in the book and movie, any encounter with them ends badly.
      As for the Count's friend who is never upset that flies and mice bother his picnic? It's time to look at him.

Clinical Vampirism, theme and variations

      For this section, we are intentionally ignoring those that are 'playing a game' of some sort, including being overly "Goth". What real vampires and their researchers call "Lifestylers" (some come complete with fake fangs!). We'll come back to them later.
      We are also ignoring those that consume blood, 'raw' or otherwise, as part of a normal diet. Such as some groups in Africa that 'bleed' livestock and use the blood as a much needed source of protein in an otherwise deficient diet. As well as oddities like 'blood spiked liquor' that can be found in various places. We're also taking things like boudin noir, a sausage made with a significant percentage of pig blood and rice, off the table. Well, if you buy it we'll cook it, with onions, and put it on the table, but we're not talking about it now.
      Most of the people we talk about are interested only in the blood of other people. Humans consuming human blood, energy, or both. Resorting to animals only when all else fails.

      Those that claim they know about this kind of thing call it "Vampire Personality Disorder", the rest of us will stick to the name Renfield Syndrome, whether or not it is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
      DSM officiousness or not, the underlying condition is a real mental illness and well-documented cases are floating around psychology related forums and discussion rooms, and have been since before the name was attached to it a few years ago as something of a joke.
      However, those that consume blood, both from the voluntary donor relationship we'll come to in a minute and those, like the namesake character whose prey is less enthusiastic about the proceeding, are not joking about it.
      There are those who will capture and kill animals, and occasionally even people, for their blood. Such as the well documented case from the late 1970s of the 'Vampire of Sacramento' who was more of a cannibal, but that's splitting hairs. (was that our first pun?)
      In any case, the difference here is one of permission, purpose, and perhaps of rationale.

      When you look into the case of the self-described Sanguinarians, you find that they consume blood they obtain without violating anybody's civil or, supposedly, legal rights, by drinking blood they purchase or otherwise obtain without violence, or the blood given to them by a 'friend' or other donor, a very small amount that does no lasting harm to the donor, not as with the Count of old. Some consume something else, and we'll come to that.
      When they can't get their preferred liquid on a regular basis, some of them exhibit physical illnesses that are very real. Up to and including very real withdrawal symptoms that can be crippling. Information could not be found about cases of any deaths from lack of drinkable human blood, evidently animal blood does not suffice. But if their condition is due to some odd manifestation of a failure in their systems ability to maintain some aspect of their body's correct homeostasic state without the input of fresh whole human blood, then you would expect somebody to occasionally land in the hospital emergency department where an order of a pint would take on a whole new meaning. Especially if they need a small amount a couple of times a week, as some do, and they can't get it.
      Let's make it clear right here and now. With those that call themselves Sanguinarians, this is not a 'want', they do not do this by some odd choice, they firmly believe that fresh whole blood, consumed on a regular basis, is essentially keeping them alive. Yes, they'll eat a grilled cheese sandwich with a bowl of soup for lunch, and they had oatmeal with their bacon and eggs for breakfast, but sometime in the next day or so they'll begin to feel bad, become weak, lightheaded, and so on, and the only cure for that is... yeah.
      And, OK, we'll go ahead and say it, Sex can be involved. One such vampire admitted that foreplay does 'get the blood moving' and puts the donor in a better condition for the donation. But we'll warm up to that topic again in a bit.
      There is a growing body of research that is now suggesting that perhaps their need for fresh whole human blood is being generated by something either psychological or biological, or most likely, a combination of both. Serious research into the matter has only been going on for a few years.
      To be fair, many of those who live like that are having problems finding those willing to donate to their cause. The breakdown of traditional friendships, people moving and being more 'on the go', and overall health concerns from both parties, many of them pay to have donors tested for diseases like AIDS and hepatitis, as well as drugs, are contributing to the slow demise of many of their numbers. Now, just what one does when you can no longer find a reliable human blood donor and you are convinced, and have some reasonable evidence that that is what is keeping you healthy and active? If the Desk ever finds an answer, it will be added to this article as an update.

      Hang on while we draw a line on the floor. OK, there. On this side you have the Sanguinarins, those who honestly believe that they have to consume blood, in some cases just a teaspoon or perhaps a shot glass full, every week or so, to stay healthy and functioning. Also, as we've seen, they do so with the full consent and participation of whoever they have talked into being a donor. They don't bite anybody on the neck, they never open a major artery on their friend, and they, for the most part, keep to themselves. On this side we also have those we mentioned and will visit with in depth in a moment that consume something less messy but is just as real, to them anyway.
      On the other side of that line, you have, others.

      Some are just being what is referred to as "Gothic", and taking it to the extreme. All black clothing, never smiling, perhaps leafing through funeral home trade magazines during lunch. Are any of them real vampires? Like the Sanguinarins we just met, or members of one of the organized religions revolving around the concept we are on our way to have a drink with?
      No. Most probably not.
      You would be safe betting that somewhere on the order of "Five Nines" (99.999%) of those with skull earrings and black nail polish are NOT real vampires, whether they are carrying around fake fangs, or have even had real ones implanted. Most would probably either faint dead away if you offered them a shotglass of fresh blood, or drink it and then be violently ill for awhile.
      And here again, sex can be deeply involved. While Sadomasochism and Bondage are supposedly not part of the 'real' Vampire life, they can be, as Submission and Dominance are a factor, with those living the Goth life, they can become central to their self identity and, if all parties have consented and enjoy such diversion for the evening or a long holiday weekend, why not?
      Which brings into the discussion of the Sexual Fetish associated with blood, Hematolagnia, yes, it does, you'll be OK. The nausea will pass. If you don't want to know about it, skip the next paragraph or so, I'll tell you when it's safe.

      Some who are 'into' that simply cane or flog, or otherwise work over their partner until blood appears. Then, satisfied, they move on to other activity. However, there are those that 'share' their blood, and can do so until the blood loss becomes a serious concern and may even be life threatening. Some of these, like the criminal mentioned in Sacramento, do consume the blood, or use it as part of the Sex Act, or do something else with it. And sometimes, things do go a bit too far and instead of a mutual Orgasm, they end up inviting the paramedics to their party. Or at least you hope they do.
      As is mentioned in the Desk's article about the mystique of Blood, it is a powerful substance. It is, indeed, Life Itself. What is sexier than that? Well, OK, the Desk can think of several things sexier than bleeding with somebody, but the imagery that your life essence is mingling with that of another person could be very significant, we suppose.
      Again, these people are not real Vampires. When a Sanguinarian engages in Foreplay with their chosen donor, it is to warm the donor up to give the vampire a small amount of highly energized blood. The same goes for the psychic vampires we're coming to shortly. The Sex Act is almost incidental to their agenda for the event. The sexual urges and drives are primal to the species, and just as in the horror novels some entities feed on the fear of others, or in a few interesting stories, feed on love, Sexual Excitement and actual Arousal is on the menu, and is easier to instill and control over a short period of time than say, love or fear, as the one tends to take a long time to develop and the other can dissipate as quickly as it arose. Which really doesn't help the hungry vampire a whole lot.
      More discussion of many of these terms can be found in the Great Sex Glossary elsewhere on The Media Desk, but, it is labeled Adults Only!

      OK. It's safe now.

      Some of these people are deeply involved in a role playing game such as the one that became all too real and resulted in murder charges being filed against a 'player' several years ago. Others just like to look like that. And some, well, why do some people do anything?
      While the 'lifestylers' may indeed look the part, they are drawing attention to themselves that the real vampires do not want, and in fact, are living in a way that is prohibited by the rules of the Temple as we'll see in a minute.
      But first, we need to look at the vampires that 'drink' something besides red blood.

Psychic Vampires

"We are a research organization for the study of life force energy, its affects and needs." link below

      In horror books and novels, Psychic Vampires can be as frightening. In the Desk's longest published novel, one of the 'bad guys' was described as a 'black hole' of mental energy, and was somebody the protagonist of the book did not want to get up close and personal with.
      Most people know individuals that seem to "suck the life" out of others. Some that do so have even been on national radio shows talking about what they do and how, see link below to a Coast to Coast AM show on the topic.
      Others are the exact opposite, they can become energized by others. They go to crowded events to 'get high' on the energy.
      And there is something to that. Being around a group can directly change your mood, either for the positive or the negative. But is what is being transferred from the cheering basketball fans to you a form of energy that can be willfully controlled and consumed?

      They also say that this drawing off of the energy of life does no harm to the 'donor' as long as the vampire doesn't take too much. And that, as with regular, blood donation, even the mundane kind at the Red Cross Blood Bank, it can make the donor healthier in the long run. See the link to the blood bank below.

      That's what the psychic vampires say they are doing. They can control how much of the energy they siphon off of others, although they do occasionally 'overdose', such as when they end up in an exceptionally large and very excited crowd. Which is why, as we mentioned a bit earlier, many of them prefer a much smaller, more intimate setting, for their feeding.
      And right there may be the biggest difference between the various vampiric practices. In the real world, most of the one on one feeding, no matter what the vampire is consuming, is consensual. When they 'do it' in a crowd, is probably isn't. And to consume the blood of another without said consent given in writing beforehand, would be felony assault.
      As we'll see in a minute, the organized groups of people that do this require their members to stay within the bounds of law. Which means they must get the permission of another to 'feed' on them. In the realm of science fiction and horror, the psychic vampire NEVER asks permission before they suck the life force out of their victim, usually leaving the donor a withered husk.
      As a contrast, let us consider those with the opposite condition. Everybody knows somebody who becomes exhausted just from being in a crowd. It is as if that mass of humanity is drawing its own energy from them. Instead of a single vampire feeding on the collective life force of the audience at the ball game, the entire audience is feeding on one individual.
      We're not talking about the phobia of being in a large crowd, Enochlophobia and/or Demophobia and a couple of other terms besides. Which points out the irony of the term for a fear of crowds being a 'crowd' of terms. They do not have to be 'on stage', or doing anything in particular. This is the exposure to a large group of people draining 'something' out of them.
      Just as if they were being preyed on by a psychic vampire who was draining them.

      And, oh, yeah, the "fear of vampires" is Sanguivoriphobia, no matter what type of vampire is in play.

      So, just what IS this energy the vampire is pulling out of you and into them?

      Well, for that we have to take a detour to the east.

      The Western traditions simply call it 'life'. The energy that makes this or that a 'living thing' and that other one is dead, or was never alive. Remember Dr Frankenstein? He imbued his monster with the spark of life from an actual spark. Well, nobody is saying that shocking experience gives something the energy of life we're talking about and that the vampires lust for.
      In the East, one of the words used for it is 'prana', which translates from the Sanskrit into something like "vital life force" or, "energy of life".
      Apparently that energy Can be given, or taken, if one has the ability to do so, and knows how to use that ability. And evidently the Temple can teach you how to do this. As we'll see in a minute.

      As with the Sanguinarians, if a Psychic Vampire doesn't feed for a period of time, they complain about dizziness, weakness, feeling hollow, and so on. Again, these symptoms can indicate a physical or psychological need, or even addiction, to a real substance. Even if this is all in their mind, and the symptoms are psychosomatic, to them, it is very real.
      You've probably seen a heavy smoker begin to twitch and get nervous when they've been too long without a cigarette. That is a real physical need. The same with somebody going through withdrawal from a medication or illegal drugs. The need is real, in some cases, withholding the drug can result in complications, seizures or cardiopulmonary problems, that could end the addict's life. It is unlikely that the psychic vampire will die if they don't get their 'fix', but the withdrawal can be just as unpleasant. And there is no blood test to tell if they've gotten a fresh supply or not.

      As to whether all of this is possible or not, or if the prana even exists or not is once again a subject best dealt with under that Metaphysical banner we mentioned before. For our work here and now, various 'old ones' have believed it is real throughout history, many teachers and ministers believe it is real, and, most certainly, the Vampires in their Church and Temple (coming up after the following bit) believe it is real now.

      Which brings up an interesting idea, just how does one get protection from psychic vampires?
      According to one Hollywood 'lifestyle' expert. One does that by sending her money and she will send you a charm, or amulet, or spellbook, or something that will keep them away.
      Well, good for her. Unfortunately, it would seem her charms only work in Hollywood, on Tuesday, perhaps. As far as can be told, IF a psychic vampire has decided that you are 'what's for dinner' and is willing to drain some of your life energy without your active permission, there is very little you can do about it.

      Just as people throughout history have used garlic, a crucifix, holy water, and whatever else to keep blood-sucking vampires away, said protections only work in the movies. And, when you watch the movies, they really didn't work so well there either.
      But that's historic, and we'll get back to it.

Let's look at that Temple we keep mentioning

"The Vampire is the next step in human evolution. If you are ready, the Temple is here to empower you."
- (link below)

      The test includes asking if you can "feel the energy of a crowd" and whether or not ESP and suchlike are real, as well as a few other somewhat leading questions.... well, yeah, OK. But agreeing with them doesn't make you a vampire, as to whether the Creator thinks of us as such, well, that's a couple of steps outside the scope of this article and around the corner to the Metaphysics division, link below.

      From the surface, just skimming through two of their books and their website, their "oldest religion" is a bit of a sham. It would seem their founder, one George Smith from Washington State, USA, took some teachings from Eckankar founded in 1965 (astral images and projection, steps to becoming 'a god'), a bit of Eastern mysticism (prana 'vital energy'), a dash of magic (perhaps shades of Wicca), and added a touch of several ancient teachings (his 'dragon' appears to be Tiamat of song and story), wrapped it around a Seventies cult of the Egyptian god Set which he had previously been part of, and mixed well. Then he sold the resulting books for whatever he could get out of them, currently over $35 US on their website.
      The vampire, according to them, has a dayside self, and a nightside. Their books, which the Desk managed to get a couple of, are interesting, but that's about it. As we just said, Mr. Smith took a bit of this and that, and what appears to be an enviable imagination, and cashed in on it.
      To belong to the Temple, you must buy the book, and pay monthly dues. And not tell anybody you belong to the Temple. Oh, and you must send them a copy of your driver's license, and a check.

      Well. We said we'd look, and we did.

      The Vampire Church is another matter all together.

"We are a research organization for the study of life force energy, its affects and needs. Within the 'Articles' Menu link, you can read any of nearly a hundred articles written by many of our members on the subject and many of its forms." (link below)
      This one seems to be more of a community than a money making enterprise solely out to separate the faithful from their cash. In fact, as yet, the Desk hasn't found anything for sale on their website, it would seem that everything there, including fonts, photos, and back issues of their magazine, are all available for free!
      In fact, several times across their site they refer to their 'Community'. But, when you look at the community, it doesn't appear to be overly active. They've had one blog entry in seven years, their FB page does not exist, and their "G+" entry is exactly that, an entry... with five followers. But at least they don't push you to buy something every time you click anything.

      But there are other groups out there, some of them are a LOT more active, and don't constantly beg for money. See the links below.

      Cruising through those sites did raise an interesting question: "what does make one a vampire?"

      Unless somebody feels the undeniable compulsion to drink fresh blood or that feels they have the ability to draw the life force out of somebody, there really is no set of questions, regardless of the nonsense on the main page of the 'temple', that would make one say 'yeah, that's me', in a meaningful way.
      It appears that 'self identification' IS the only reliable test, unless you find yourself suddenly thirsty when the "give the gift of life" commercial comes on during the evening news. Red Cross link below.


      There IS no "first instance" of something resembling a vampire in history.
      If you wander back to Sumeria you find yourself face to face with a blood drinking-flesh eating demon called Labatru.
      In ancient India they called similar monsters the vetala and described them as 'reamimated corpses'.
      The ancient Jews whispered stories about Lillith, and the Desk did it's own bit about her and her legend, and, yes, she did exhibit some rather vampirish traits (link below).
      The same happens in China, the Americas, Africa. It would appear that the undead, in various forms, sometimes drinking blood, sometimes not, and occasionally 'stealing a soul', have been with us for as long as we have been 'us'.
      Indeed, given the subject matter of some of the more unusual cave paintings and rock art scattered among prehistoric sites world wide, it does not take much imagination at all to visualize some old curmudgeon cave man whispering a tale about the shuffling corpse of Old Uncle Ogg who wanders through the forest at night looking for a young unwary cave teen who's out too late to feed on. Oh, look what was that shadow in the corner?

      And now, a couple of notes to correct some "little known facts" the Desk stumbled across, and one comment from a forum reader that were, well, as fictional as our friend in the cape:

      The Sidhe were not "Celtic vampires", it would be better to label the mound dwellers 'fairies', although some were 'blood drinkers' not all were. And they probably don't appreciate being called that.
      A reliable source on the matter: (link below)

      Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria, the 'vampire disease', only means that the patient has an extreme sensitivity to light as well as other complications that may be treated with transfusions. But it does NOT cause a thirst for blood.
      For more information visit See link below

      And as far as Italian female vampires not having vaginas, well, somebody was evidently pulling that individual's leg because, as far as the Desk could find, Italy has had its fair share of fully functional female vampires (a couple of them seem to have made a 'sexploitation' film or two over the years as well), and, in fact, one from several centuries ago was buried with a brick jammed into her mouth so if she came back from the grave, she'd have something else to deal with before she made her rounds. That was normal practice in various parts of Europe when the people in general had a serious mass case of Sanguivoriphobia instead of making rather bad skin-flick type movies about them. See link below to related article from National Geographic.

      One more. Social media 'meme'-jokes aside, there ARE a few Sanguinarians who are also vegetarians and vegans (they drink Human blood, and do not eat meat otherwise!), and, believe it or not, some of them are very politically active in the animal-welfare/rights ring. You can find out more through a couple of the related sites linked below. As for vegan Psychic Vampires, they would appear to fit the same demographics as the rest of the world.

      Yeah, the Desk knows, it just kills all the fun with "little known facts" and "social media" stuff.
      And it's OK with that.

      Now, about the protection from, and the dealing with, of unwanted vampires.
      A "wooden stake through the heart" would most certainly do in any of the ones we've mentioned, so would a silver bullet, or pretty much any bullet for that matter. As for garlic, crosses, mirrors, and all the rest of it for protection? No. It makes a good book, or movie, or role playing game. But given the fact that, as far as can be told, the vast majority of vampires (back to at least the five nines again) are very mortal and will assume room temperature from any of the usual causes of that condition that are associated with the rest of humanity, nothing special is needed short of a good lock on the door and a big dog in the yard to keep them away.
      However, that doesn't make a very dramatic movie does it?


      It has taken us several thousand words to sort it out. We've spent some time with a couple of quasi-religious groups, registered with the blood bank, checked out enough medical stuff to make us think about skipping our next physical, and sat through an old movie (it REALLY IS worth watching!), to come to this.
      Yes, Virginia, vampires are real.


      For entertainment value, stick to the fictional ones, it would seem the Real Vampires, of both types, just don't make as good a show as those.

Per Usual, the Desk did NOT use the 'free online encyclopedia' as a source for reasons that are explained elsewhere.
All links were working at time of original posting 15 Oct, 2017. Outside links will open in new window (tab).

the book: Bram Stoker's, Dracula

Movie with some background material: "...We can post no more relevant endorsement of Nosferatu's enduring value than to say that it remains scary, or at least eerie, to this day. I defy any sophisticated modern viewer to spend All Hallows' eve with this picture and not come away feeling faintly unsettled."
the full URL is

"Vampire Personality Disorder":

Scientifically Oriented Inquiry and Advocacy for Sanguinarians

"Drawing blood through biting is not a sanitary or safe practice,"
Article is best described as "PG-13":

It apparently is what it says it is:

Article on the 'hub' about being a donor:

"Atlanta Vampire Alliance [AVA] - A Real Vampire House"

"Vampire Community News (VCN) was founded in 2008 by Merticus as an extension of the internal notification system for the Voices of the Vampire Community (VVC)."

"vampire games, vampire news, and real vampires"

The online magazine dedicated to.....

Interview with a (Psychic) Vampire:

The Church:

"So being who we are does require us to adapt and make changes in our daily lives. And then we also survive like so many do. We work and pay our rents and bills like any other and that requires adjustments in our time. ... I believe it is worth the risk for we will continue to suffer from ridicule and misconception, and our gain is not only educating the misinformed about our vampirism but also understanding how to live with and adjust to who and what we are in relation to the rest of society."

From the Temple:
We require all members and followers of this religion to refrain from any and all criminal acts and criminal advocacy as defined by their respective governments.
We require all members and followers of this religion to refrain from physical blood drinking."

More about the 'vampire disease'

The Celtic Sidhe:


That Blood Bank:

Media Desk Non Fiction and Mystery Series Articles as mentioned:

Plants as Medicine is touched on in: "OK, what is it about women and those essential oils?..."

Blood is all through: Blood: History, Legend, and the "five W's"

Magic also touches on 'sex magic'.

Vampyres and other monsters came to call in this one.

Miss Lilith, your table is ready

This glossary defines most of the terms used in this article, and a couple of thousand others as well.
ADULTS ONLY The Great Sex Glossary - also check out its amazing Quote Collection!

A Link To Other Non-Fiction and Mystery Series Articles
from at-

The address of this article is: , if it shows up anywhere else, let the Desk know. Thank you.
[NOTE: This work is to be treated as an educational article as a general brief on the topic. Other conclusions can and have been drawn from the same information, and all are probably equally valid.
      EveryBody and everything mentioned in this article is owned by other entities. No disparagement or disrespect is intended. No endorsement of the Desk of them, or by them of the Desk is to be inferred.
      The Desk is solely responsible for the analysis and conclusions hereby presented. If the reader has any issues with anything in the article they may contact the Desk through the usual channels.
thank you]

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